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Surgical procedures


Orthopaedics is the surgical specialty covering bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles. It broadly falls into the categories of trauma, sports injuries and the treatment of degenerative disorders such as arthritis.

  • Knee replacement
  • Hip replacement
  • ACL reconstruction
  • Knee arthroscopy
  • Meniscal transplantation
  • Articular cartilage grafting
  • Knee realignment osteotomy
  • Shoulder arthroscopy
  • Rotator cuff repair
  • Shoulder replacement
  • Elbow replacement
  • Tennis elbow surgery
  • Foot surgery
  • Ankle surgery

Plastic surgery has two main components: reconstructive plastic surgery which is all about restoring function and appearance to the human body after illness or accident and aesthetic (often called “cosmetic”) plastic surgery, which is primarily to change the appearance from choice. Unlike most surgical specialties that are defined by an anatomical area, plastic surgery is defined by the surgical techniques that are carried out.

  • Rhinoplasty
  • Face lifts
  • Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery)
  • Tummy tuck
  • Breast enlargement
  • Breast reduction

Otolaryngologists (commonly referred to as ENT surgeons) deal with the diagnosis, evaluation and management of diseases of head and neck and principally the ears, nose and throat.

One of the key areas of concern for ENT surgeons are helping patients cope with or recover from diseases that impair the senses of hearing and balance. They will also be concerned with the functional aspects of breathing, eating and speech. ENT surgeons also deal with cancers in this region of the body.

  • Rhinoplasty
  • Tonsillectomy
  • Adenoidectomy
  • Myringotomy (ear drum surgery)
  • Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Turbinate surgery
  • Nasal septum repair
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Parathyroidectomy

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and disease of the eye and visual system.  Surgical ophthalmology refers to ophthalmologists who perform microsurgical intraocular operations, such as cataract extraction surgery or retinal detachment repair surgery.

  • Refractive surgery
  • Corneal surgery
  • Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery)
  • Glaucoma surgery
  • Cataract surgery
  • Browlift

Often seen as the bridge between medicine and dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, face and neck. The scope of the specialty is extensive and includes the diagnosis and management of facial injuries, head and neck cancers, salivary gland diseases, facial disproportion, facial pain, impacted teeth, cysts and tumours of the jaw, as well as numerous problems affecting the oral mucosa, such as mouth ulcers and infections.

  • Wisdom tooth extraction
  • TMJ disorder surgery
  • Corrective jaw surgery
  • Cleft lip and palate surgery
  • Facial injury and scarring
  • Head and neck cancer surgery

Obstetrics and gynaecology is the medical specialty that encompasses the two subspecialties of obstetrics (covering pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period) and gynecology (covering the health of the female reproductive system:  vagina, uterus, ovaries, and breasts).

  • Caesarian section
  • Cervical cryosurgery
  • Colposcopy
  • Dilation & curettage (D&C)
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Hysterectomy
  • Fibroid surgery
  • Pelvic laparoscopy

Vascular surgery is a specialty dealing with diseases affecting the vascular system including diseases of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels. Patients requiring vascular surgery suffer from many different vascular disorders that adversely affect quality of life, such as intermittent claudication, varicose veins, lymphatic disorders, hyperhidrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformations and many more.

  • Varicose vein surgery
  • Angioplasty and stenting
  • Carotid Endarterectomy
  • Carotid Stenting
  • Surgical aneurysm repair
  • Thoracic outlet surgery

Urologists deal with diseases, trauma and congenital abnormalities of the kidney, bladder, genitalia and urinary tract, as well as male sexual and reproductive health. Urology combines management of many non-surgical problems, such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the correction of incontinence, prostate problems and the treatment of cancer.

  • Prostate surgery
  • Cystoscopy
  • Vasectomy
  • Vasectomy reversal
  • Lithotripsy
  • Male circumcision
  • Penile surgery

Given the wide range of work undertaken by general surgeons, one of distinguishing features of general surgery is the range of sub-specialties that lie within it. These include:

  • Breast – assessment of the large number of patient with breast symptoms, and surgery on breast cancers, often including reconstructive procedures that do not require plastic surgeons.
  • Colorectal – surgery for diseases of the colon, rectum and anal canal, particularly cancer of the rectum.
  • Endocrine – surgery for disease of the thyroid and other endocrine glands.
  • Upper Gastrointestinal – surgery for diseases affecting the liver, oesophagus and stomach. This also covers obesity surgery. Major operations for cancer are usually done in regional specialist units.
  • Transplant – kidney and liver transplantation are the routine procedures, but many other organs may be transplanted.
  • Hernia repair
  • Colon resection
  • Cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal)
  • Breast biopsy / lumpectomy
  • Haemorrhoid surgery

Neurosurgeons undertake operations for a wide range of conditions affecting the central nervous system, spine and peripheral nerves.

  • Anterior cervical discectomy
  • Chiari decompression
  • Epilepsy surgery
  • Discectomy (and microdiscectomy)
  • Spinal decompression
  • Spinal fusion

Cardiothoracic surgery is the specialty involved with the treatment of diseases affecting organs within the thorax (the chest), principally the heart, lungs and oesophagus.

  • Coronary artery stenting
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery
  • Heart valve surgery
  • Heart transplantation
  • Pneumonectomy: removal of a whole lung
  • Lobectomy: removal of a lobe of the lung

Cardiothoracic surgery isWhere other specialties are concerned with a particular technique or area of the body, paediatric surgery is the only surgical specialty that is defined by the patient’s age rather than by a specific condition and deals with the diseases, trauma and malformations from the foetal period to teenage years. The majority of specialised children’s surgery is performed in specific children’s hospitals, or in paediatric surgical units within larger hospitals.

  • Hernia repair
  • Orchiopexy (correction of undescended testes)
  • Male circumcision
  • Correction of torsion of the testis
  • Pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis
  • Bariatric surgery
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